The main qualitative characteristics of pigments yavlyatsya: * dispersion (fineness), which determines the smoothness of the film; * Oil absorption – the amount of oil needed for cooking pasta colorful of 100 grams of pigment * coverage – the ability of pigment to hide the painted surface underneath the film, it is determined by the number grams of ink expended on the surface of 1 m * coloring power – the ability of pigment to give its inherent color of the mixture, in which it is introduced * Solubility – the ability of some pigments dissolved in various solvents. For even more opinions, read materials from Brad Pitt. Natural (mineral) pigments are finely powdered material obtained from various minerals and rocks, and subjected to enrichment or heat treatment. In mostly colored oxides or salts of minerals. These include chalk, ocher, graphite, iron ocher and other synthetic inorganic pigments are the largest group of pigments. They are the result of complex chemical reactions, and this group is almost entirely composed of salts and metal oxides. This group includes lead, zinc and titanium white, vermilion, chrome oxide, etc. Synthetic organic pigments are colored organic compounds that contain carbon.

Usually they are insoluble or slightly soluble in water and other solvents. They are distinguished by light and atomosferostoykostyu, high coloring power and commonly used for internal decorative works. Resins are adhesives, synthetic, oil, emulsion and mineral compositions. Also applies to them a kind of colorful paints – farblaki. These pigments, produced by deposition of aniline dyes in the white (chalk, kaolin, talc, feldspar) basis. Metallic pigments (powdered) – powder made of a different color (copper, zinc, aluminum, bronze, etc.) or metal alloys. The mixture with binders (linseed oil, varnish), they are used for coloring metal surfaces corrosion, and adhesives – for bronzing, rolling and finishing of decorative art and painting. The most common on Today, aluminum powder and PAP-1 aluminum powder PAP-2, is also often used as a pigment, bronze powder. Encouraged not only to apply the powder with binders having a neutral or low acid number.

Useful Tips For Building Fences

Rabitsa in the sections are made of sections of the Section-centered pipes. In the finished frame by welding or clamping blades fixed regular grid-rabitsu. Ideally, the frame is factory welded fasteners, hinges or attachment to the supporting pillars. Cheap, fairly durable, with galvanized mesh, with painting, you can pick the color in the style of your house, techno-logical installation. Require additional cost and care, not long-lived, if not galvanized, welding required for installation, so it is difficult to reliably protect the welds from corrosion.

Welded metal fence metal fence Dekorativnle manufactured in the factory and assembled of the sections on the site on a metal pole with riveting or welding. Wrought Fence Wrought Iron fences – this remake of the masters of the Baroque in your country house, or forged products in stilis-tick the modern world design-ditch embodied hands of blacksmiths. In truth, wrought ograzhdenire – em-schenie style and grace. style and elegance, unique design, long service life. expensive, long-term production installation with special equipment. Total for fences: Usually we surround ourselves with 'impregnable' fences. But do not forget about the aesthetic satisfaction, unity with nature, with the world.

Out of the house and every time watch bare brick wall, at least, boring. If you appreciate beauty and have a good taste, then our advice to choose your panel fencing. As an alternative to traditional car at the fence contemporary realities are increasingly using the parking barriers or bollards. Fence city estate. 'Take' – protect the fence was quite practical meaning: in tough times seen first reliable fence and dashing vorogov people. In Radzivilovskoy record, at the end of the XV century, depicts the prince's court in a courtyard surrounded by a fence with pointed sticks sticking up. This court in the event of an attack on him was made of this fortress, a strong fences and gates which could sit (Radzivilovskaya Chronicle, fol. 48 on., 100). In otchichie of medieval European city, where houses were close, especially the areas along the streets for Moscow, as for other cities in ancient Russia is characterized by a very different type of building – yard, or estate: open or fenced yard located in a free manner and outbuildings, in the depth of which was itself home. Owned wealthy owner (the prince and the royal court in this respect no different), usually all the buildings were located separately from each other, not forming a solid ensemble, fenced, only sometimes they have been connected by covered passages – vaults. This complex of buildings called the yard mansion, and the height of the house was a measure of well-being of the host. One of the main features of a wealthy boyar estates were the guard defensive towers – povalushi, ustnanovlennye in protecting the estate.

Unit Garden Paths

Landscaping or backyard garden plot necessarily includes equipment tracks. On how well they planned and carried out depends largely on appearance of the site. Among people with no experience construction, is widely believed that enough to pour on the ground slag or gravel layer of 3-5 cm and compacted, and the track is ready. However, when the first heavy rains, not to mention the spring thaw, it raskisnet and become a dirt. To avoid errors, you must adhere to certain rules. The basic requirement – a convex profile that ensures a good flow of water.

In general the slope of the track axis to the edges should be in the range of 2-3 cm per meter (Wide). The depth of the base tab track (topsoil removed) is 15-20 cm Material: construction waste (broken bricks, remnants of concrete and mortar), slag, natural rock (rock), crushed stone, gravel, dolomite. Finished track must perform a few inches above the soil surface, or grass, over the years growing, ground lift, and the track will be recessed into the ground on it will stagnate water. Sediment-path most easily done Sediment track. The work begins with the markup, then remove the soil to a depth of 15 cm, so that the bottom of the resulting cavity was convex.

Seizure and rammed her fall asleep in a large base of slag, gravel or bout brick layer 10-12 cm base watered and tamped. Then poured on top, keeping track convex profile, small slag layer 4-5 cm and also tamped. Even better, the base coat layer of waterproof clay fatty 1-2 cm thick, then pour a small and compact slag. To arrange bulk tracks raised curb is not recommended, since they degrade the drain. Sediment track of slag, gravel, building waste: a) profile extraction, and b) track from the slag: 1 – base (a large slag), 2 – cover (with small slag coarse-grained sand), and c) track from the rubble and construction waste. 1 – base dolomite bout bricks, pebbles, etc.) 2 .- moisture barrier (Heavy clay 1-2 cm), 3 – cover (gravel, fine dolomite, slag with a coarse sand). BRICK FINISH tracks with a beautiful and durable coatings are made of red brick. It is best to use red perezhzhenny brick, the so-called 'ladle', resistant to moisture. These cheap waste brick production may well be replaced by a brick-conditioned. Preparatory work for the tracks with a brick surface are the same as for Sediment from The only difference is that as a base layer of coarse sand is used in 10-12 cm sand is spread, keeping the convex profile track, and abundantly moistened with water. Then placed the bricks on the chosen scheme (see fig.). Laying of schemes 1 and 2 allows the use of half bricks and corners. Brick laying can be carried out differently (Figure 3). Laying on its side (Figure 4) can be recommended only for small volumes of work or for road sections with increased load. Brick laid in a wooden block pritrambovyvayut. Along the edges of the brick paths brick laid on edge to form a low curb. Freshly laid track should be watered abundantly water. As you can master the technology of Pavement with his own hands. But this is a topic for another article, tiling also requires compliance with technology

The Same

So, serpyanku basically put on a PVA glue. But we can take, and other adhesives. The main thing – that the net hung from the ceiling and that it adheres well to the plaster. By the way, recently went on sale Adhesive serpyanka. Metal grid, "Shoot" to the ceiling with special brackets, hooks, or "pinks" with broad heads. It is needed in that case, when you need a thicker layer of plaster (3 – 5 cm). Peter Thiel is likely to agree.

In general, the grid recommend to put on all joints and seams. When the plaster dries, cover layer of leveling putty. And if you want to paint the ceiling then do not forget that under the paint to put a coat of primer. The result is "Layer cake". By the way, the master of the construction company "Elite-Comfort" revealed to us a professional secret, "In most cases, we shpaklyuem" Fugenfyullerom "or" Vetonitom ", mixed with white glue. So, this putty surface can not properly primed. " In addition, as a primer, you can use the same paint, which will be painted the ceiling.

But it must be diluted, which use a solvent P-646, approximately 20%. Moreover, take exactly the diluent, which is indicated on the can (if you use water-based paint, then have to be thinned with water). And another important point. As advised by experienced builders, for better quality repair ceiling to use a putty, primer and paint one of the firm. This primarily refers to the primer and paint. Only then can we ensure "interoperability" of materials (that is, they will not flake off, slough, etc.). Align the ceiling to see how even turned the ceiling surface, use different instrumentation, but you can also use traditional methods. Who chooses what – A matter of habit. Some masters mark the ceiling, "beacons" – ordinary nails that pierce in different places so that the hats were in the same (horizontal) plane.

Bath Enamelling

Peeling bathrooms are a national disease. The solution to this problem, in principle, there is a long time – restore the enamel coating. What is the technology of such works? If the enamel was rough, there were chips and cracks, color not white, red and muddy, then a bath is quite possible to breathe new life, otemalirovav it again. If we are talking about cracks and deformation of the body tub, how to drain the site or do not match the size of new pipes with old drain hole – means that the bath should be changed completely. Enamelling old bath will be much cheaper than buying new. After all, it requires only buy to cover enamel bath for a maximum of 300 rubles. Work wizard and in the restoration of the old baths, and when a new will cost about the same. In addition to install a new bathroom, it must first buy and bring back, then break down the old plant, which will inevitably lead to a replacement of tiles, pipes and other additional costs.

Of course, the industrial process of enamelling is different from "home". In the production of cast-iron bath heated red hot and on the inner surface evenly sprayed powder. Under the influence of temperature it melts and spreads, turning into the enamel. But the production had already served their enamelling legitimate 15 – 20 years, and cast iron body bath – yet. So throw it just pathetic. It may indeed be reasonable to cover it with a new enamel? To date, there are three "home" enamelling bath. 1. Is to purchase the enamel applied by brush her own.

2. You can access the services of professionals (meaning the same method of applying enamel with a brush). 3. You can find companies that cause enamel spray. But before we look at each of these options, you need to say a few words about key stages of enamelling baths, because for all three cases they are identical.