Tag: construction and repair
Just these primers swells upon freezing, may erode and subjected to other environmental influences. And there are a lot of ground. If everything had to build the foundation for the clay, it should deepen correspond to the entire depth of the possible . Thus, the soil sample – a mandatory process before construction of the foundation and building. And now is a detailed focus on the entire process of swelling, freezing and the influence of groundwater.
The depth of soil freezing is determined by the geographical location of future buildings. In this connection it may be different. For example, Volgograd, Kursk, Smolensk, Pskov characterized freezing to a depth of 1.2 meters. And Moscow, Novgorod, , St. Petersburg have freezing depth 1.4 meters.
Deeper soil freezing is observed in Penza, Vologda, Saratov, Kostroma – 1.5 meters. A very important factor is the groundwater level, and to neglect this information can not be. Ground water must be below the level of the depth of freezing. The reason is that during the freezing cold, exposed all the deeper soil layers. If this process reaches the groundwater, then turn them into ice, which guarantees the swelling of the soil and, consequently, the deformation of the building. But it's not so scary. The fact that the process of freezing never took place, and will not take place evenly, as, indeed, and thawing. Because of this, and there is a displacement of the foundation, the redistribution of the total load and as a consequence, cracks in various places.
Vigilance – the best remedy to avoid becoming a victim of fraud, you need to pay attention to some features which distinguish original products from the fake. For example, the original packing for the mortar is usually made of a multilayer paper. In this case, information and marking shall be directly on the package, rather than glued labels. Sometimes the packaging supply additional "protection". This may be a hologram, embossing, etc. Often, packages and boxes of building mixtures of large manufacturers have the zip-tape to facilitate their opening. If you book a package small quantities, it would be too expensive and the production of counterfeit mixture will be unprofitable. Therefore, the zip-strip – true a sign of quality goods.
However, careful examination requires packaging of any product. Labels must be clear and logos and brand colors manufacturer – match those found in advertising, Internet sites, etc. Should be checked and the availability of such details as the information about the manufacturer (including contact information), bar code, manufacturing date and shelf life. In addition, the packaging of most really high-quality goods sold in Russia, usually a so-called conformity mark – a logo Rostest located underneath an alphanumeric code of the certification body. Exactly the same code should be on certificate which the seller must present upon request. Large manufacturers applied conformity mark directly on the package, without using any additional labels. If you are told that certification of many types of goods today is not necessary, remember – reputable companies tend to voluntarily certify their products, even if it can not do.
Construction Of Turnkey Cottages: Fastest Way To Build A House With
Construction of turnkey cottages – not cheap, but the popularity of such a process affects its strength. Construction of turnkey cottages – the kind of work in which workers carry out the construction of the building or structures, together with the finishing work. Ie customer receives a finished house, which you can safely enter immediately after completion. Do not you need something to finish and dokrashivat, all work will be done for you. Construction cottages on the key has several advantages. However, do not fully trust the construction company, you must carefully read the contract for services, and then periodically come on the scene and verify the behavior work. Construction of turnkey cottages provides a variety of construction firms.
Therefore, when choosing a company, you should carefully review the prices of competitors, read customer reviews, see the information on the forums. Construction of turnkey cottages – will save you time and hassle searching for the Professional and control over the commission works. Construction of turnkey cottages made from the building foundation to roof. As well as internal and external decoration, incision windows and doors. Construction of turnkey cottages can be implemented on standard projects.
Or create your own special project at home. Companies are going to meet their customers, so all requests will be met. Swarmed by offers, Naveen Selvadurai is currently assessing future choices. The price usually includes cost of construction materials. Because the company carries out wholesale purchase of building materials, construction of cottages on the key can do cheaper than buying a separate materials. Construction of turnkey cottages carried out by experts in the shortest possible time. All companies try to use the new items of construction and modern technology, it is saves time and money, as well as improve the quality of the building. Some types of construction work overshadowed by opting for a more streamlined ways.
The durability of the building erected to be in direct proportion to the use of building materials. Applying these or other species can significantly extend its operational period, as well as provide heat protection and construction even the sound insulation. Every year there is a tendency to improve the quality of our products. This is directly related to scientific and technological progress, mankind has presented a modified equipment and synthetic additives, which often serve to reinforce the manufactured materials and products. Today, most residential buildings, shopping centers, industrial facilities and other buildings are constructed of reinforced concrete building materials. Their molding is a process in which a concrete mixture in conjunction with the appropriate fittings, insulation and other materials attached to the desired shape. When the mixture is compacted, then grasped and hardens, forming a product given properties and dimensions.
So produced plates, blocks panels, foundations and other elements. This process is composed of a series of consistently conducting operations manufacture of concrete products, which include cleaning, lubrication and reassembly of the form, laying and fixing of reinforcement, concrete and other materials, seal the concrete mixture, smoothing the surface of the product and, finally, the setting and curing the mixture to stripping strength. Molding products can be accomplished in a movable and unmovable forms. Each of them is used depending on necessity, on the location and conditions. Manufacturer in move the form occurs in the course of successive transporting them from one station to the second, then third. At every point to make certain manufacturing operations, such as cleaning, lubrication, packing reinforcement, concrete, etc. In this case, cars and people doing these activities, which are located downstream in the appropriate positions. Molding products in non forms when all the manufacturing operations consistently committed in one spot moving cars and people, called the poster production. Here, Peter Thiel expresses very clear opinions on the subject.
This technology is used mainly for landfill-built temporary type. Basically it is used in manufacture large or long products, which moving from a post on a post due to certain difficulties. Regardless of whether a monolithic reinforced concrete products, or team, it manufactures in the formwork or forms, the primary purpose of which is to give the product proper shape, size and surface. Good sound insulation of various buildings provides a foamed concrete. Produce it by mixing cement paste (or mortar) with a special foam stable structure. It is insulating with volume up to 600 kg/m3 and constructive – Reinforced wire with a volumetric weight of more than 600 kg/m3. For the production of insulation type used dough cooked in a Portland cement not less than 300, and for constructive – solution of a mixture of basic ingredients with crushed quartz sand in a ratio of 1:1 – 1:3. The resulting mixture is poured into shape blocks and slabs. Compressive strength of insulating foam is 4-15 kg/cm2. Constructive (reinforced) material has a compressive strength of 50-100 kg/cm2. He has considerable strength in bending, allow the use of slabs of it at the same time as the insulation and the supporting elements.
Modern Power Cable
One of the important challenges facing the country's power is the solution to the problem of power supply reliability. Power cables that were previously used for laying nets designed to medium, low and high stress, in many cases obsolete. Today, the domestic industry unable to meet the growing demand for power cables of the new generation – an opportunity to buy a cable with improved features directly from the manufacturers. The modern cable production offers consumers the power cables of three types: paper-insulated lead-in shell, with xlpe insulation (Polyolefin) and conventional, insulated by a thermoplastic polyethylene. If we evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each type of power cables, it turns out next. An important advantage of cable with paper impregnated insulation designed for low and medium voltage (this brand of asb, sb, sg, tsasb, cbs and others) – stable electrical characteristics.
However, the disadvantages are the laborious process of manufacture, expensive and, besides, the heavy metallic shell of this type of power cable. Sales of cable insulated with a thermoplastic polyethylene is becoming larger scale, however, and this kind of power cable (it's brand vvg, avvg, VBbSh, AVBbSh, kvvg and others) can not be called universal, although the cost of such cables are more than acceptable. Power cable with plastic insulation has very low resistance to high temperatures, comparable to the melting point of polyethylene. The most up to date power cable suitable for use in both low and high voltage, as well as withstand severe thermal stress, is a cable with xlpe insulation. High mechanical strength, power cable (it's brand ABvBbSh, AnBn, PVBbSh, PvVG and others) due to "cross-linking" of polyethylene. "Matching" means processing of isolation at the molecular level – resulting in a three-dimensional structure of the insulation material with exceptional properties.
Power cables with xlpe insulation have a working temperature range when operating in emergency mode, more than similar options paper insulated cables with an average of 30%, and the cable from an ordinary polyethylene – by 60%. In addition, "stitched" negigrosokopichny cables and have high strength characteristics. These properties are given to these power cables by using a process of "matching" silanes – grafted organo-functional groups. For power cables, designed for medium voltage is applied another way of stitching – peroxide, in a dry environment. This is necessary in order to ensure the immutable physical and mechanical properties of the cable in the transverse direction and to achieve stable electrical characteristics.
Among other organizations related to housing and public utilities, major urban water utilities stand out. And, unlike other "brothers" on housing and utilities, where the depreciation of fixed assets reaches sometimes exorbitant 90% position of these companies have fairly stable. This is understandable – being the one hand, strategic objects, they are even in turbulent times felt the support of the state. On the other hand – that utilities are suppliers of essential and the public, and business services – water supply and sanitation. But on its own stability – not a panacea for all ills.
Today, as in the famous children's tale, "to simply remain in place, you need to run for dear life, continuous growth of energy tariffs simply does not have a choice. To keep up forever, even just to stay within the cost-effectiveness, any enterprise must be constantly and quite rapidly – to reduce costs, improve production efficiency. All this is impossible without the use of latest technological developments. And, as the experience of leading Russian utilities, even very large investments pay off handsomely. Water several years ago in Bashkortostan was successfully reconstructed water three industrial cities of the country – Salavat, Sterlitamak and Ishimbay. Their Group abstraction serves sue Salavatvodokanal. Like almost everywhere in such structures, the lion's share of expenditure devoted to electricity. And pumping equipment consumes up to 70% of the total energy consumption enterprise. Most of them (80%) are in the station of the second and subsequent climbs. About 6 years ago, when the modernization of the water utility, the company has installed pumps grundfos type sp.
We can say that voluntary certification is more flexible in relation to existing market realities. Her opportunities are not limited to practically nothing. If the mandatory certification affects only a certain group of goods and services, the voluntary can be applied universally. For example, recently appeared in Russia first four certified beach. "Classification and certification of beaches – this is a voluntary measure, which are not all the owners, – the head of the department of public policy and organization tourist activities of the Ministry of Sport, Tourism and Youth Policy of Hope Nazina.
– However, it allows the boarding houses and sanatoriums to attract more tourists by positioning itself as a beach territory. " One of the first industries that will be implemented by the principle of self-regulation, is construction. It is planned that by changing the licenses Rosstroy come self-regulatory organizations. To become a member of such organizations, companies will need to meet a set of stringent criteria. Peter Thiel brings even more insight to the discussion. Already in the construction industry some companies are beginning to conduct the certification on a voluntary basis.
For example, in November 2007, the Group propleks companies, Russia's largest producer of pvc window-profile of Austrian technologies, began to certify its partners. Department for work with customers has been developed program, which includes conducting a full audit of production and sales offices of the partner company to ensure compliance propleks to production technology, facilities, training, level of service and testing claims. In the future the company plans to provide full support to certified partners. The latter, in turn, receive an additional quality assurance your services, what can declare to the consumer. However, all of the above does not mean that it is impossible to conduct voluntary certification of product conformity to state standards. So, today, "Rostest conducts not only certification in gost R system, but also in its own proprietary system "Rostest-quality, designed specifically for manufacturers wishing to obtain further evidence of high consumer properties their products. In this case, applicants receive so-called "blue certificates" signed "Rostest-Quality". In the strong flow of advertising breaks on the modern consumer is really the objective criterion is just a certificate. This paper – a sort of "passport" products containing the most accurate and objective information about it. And if before the issuance of such documents is the only state now themselves commercial organizations can compete for the "purity of their ranks."
In addition, Today serious developers interested in the revival of licensing for construction works – this will cut off smaller competitors and really put things in order in certain types of construction work. Today already a considerable number of organizations have realized that it's easier and cheaper to invest in its own system of quality control activities, than to pay later for the errors. "We have a contractual relationship with one of the leading institutes in the construction industry of the city – sri Mosstroy. At all our facilities it provides of operational quality control – with a weekly report, – said Andrei Sharov, Director General construction company's strategy. " – In addition, we have a certified laboratory, concluded several contracts with the organizations involved, such as monitoring of surrounding buildings, control behavior of soils under the base of constructed buildings. Not only are customers, but manufacturers are interested in quality work. Some companies advocate the implementation of programs for the certification of its partners.
Availability this document, in particular, from the producers of translucent structures, according to experts propleks, will serve as end-user quality assurance of finished window, its installation and service service. Building – just a class along with the issue of compliance technology and the quality of the material itself more acutely raises the problem of low skills of many builders. To solve this problem requires the combined efforts of business and power. For example, in the Sverdlovsk region Ministry of Construction and Architecture in conjunction with the Ministry of General and Vocational Education created its system of partnership. Was organized by the Council to prepare training, which consisted of directors of colleges and professional schools, as well as leaders of industrial unions. The Ministry of Construction and Architecture established information base, which reflects the needs of construction companies in the frames.
Based on these data, and prepared training programs. Feature of the construction industry is the fact that professionals need to periodically upgrade their skills, ideally – job work. In this sense, may be useful experience Institute of Scientific and Technical Society of Builders. Now professionals can take courses remotely, getting educational materials for home or office. Prevent marriage – a very simple, but the fight with him – very difficult. Change must not only technology but also the psychology of builders. Notably, in some European countries to construct a building, the organization sufficient Architects seek confirmation that the project does not harm the city appearance. The technical documentation and the process of building officials practically do not interfere. They know that marriage and failures of interested in less than anyone else. And the faster in Russia cares about the image will become an indispensable attribute of each organization, the more likely the marriage will disappear completely. Press Service of the Group PROPLEKS