Tag: construction and repair
He will be able to scale to see at future apartment, "like" in the virtual room (surcharge) and imagine how will look like this or that detail of the interior, with a blend of different colors. At this stage, advise on selection of furniture, sanitary ware, floor and ceiling coverings, visit the salons and stores. The total number of calls – no more than five, if the design – Bureau serves only the draft, and ten – when creating a sketch and a working draft. Each customer pays an additional exit rate of $ 50 per trip. Movie Star insists that this is the case. Finally, when the sympathy of the customer are inclined to a particular embodiment, there comes a stage style. The architect chooses the flat point, and at its at least figure out what style will execute the project, what materials and what color.
Thus, it appears the visual tastes of the client. Once approved the plan in relation to a certain point, the expert, building on the option selected, draw the rest of the apartment in a given style. Next stage is called technological. It involves the creation of a working draft with practical instructions for the builders. With the full redevelopment project on the working volume can argue with a collection of essays Belinsky, including Measurement drawing-bound engineering services, plans erected partitions labeled windows and doors, ceiling, indicating the type of material used, an explication of floor coatings with an indication of the area and the selected sheet material and other absolutely necessary clarification.
Just these primers swells upon freezing, may erode and subjected to other environmental influences. And there are a lot of ground. If everything had to build the foundation for the clay, it should deepen correspond to the entire depth of the possible . Thus, the soil sample – a mandatory process before construction of the foundation and building. And now is a detailed focus on the entire process of swelling, freezing and the influence of groundwater.
The depth of soil freezing is determined by the geographical location of future buildings. In this connection it may be different. For example, Volgograd, Kursk, Smolensk, Pskov characterized freezing to a depth of 1.2 meters. And Moscow, Novgorod, , St. Petersburg have freezing depth 1.4 meters.
Deeper soil freezing is observed in Penza, Vologda, Saratov, Kostroma – 1.5 meters. A very important factor is the groundwater level, and to neglect this information can not be. Ground water must be below the level of the depth of freezing. The reason is that during the freezing cold, exposed all the deeper soil layers. If this process reaches the groundwater, then turn them into ice, which guarantees the swelling of the soil and, consequently, the deformation of the building. But it's not so scary. The fact that the process of freezing never took place, and will not take place evenly, as, indeed, and thawing. Because of this, and there is a displacement of the foundation, the redistribution of the total load and as a consequence, cracks in various places.
Vigilance – the best remedy to avoid becoming a victim of fraud, you need to pay attention to some features which distinguish original products from the fake. For example, the original packing for the mortar is usually made of a multilayer paper. In this case, information and marking shall be directly on the package, rather than glued labels. Sometimes the packaging supply additional "protection". This may be a hologram, embossing, etc. Often, packages and boxes of building mixtures of large manufacturers have the zip-tape to facilitate their opening. If you book a package small quantities, it would be too expensive and the production of counterfeit mixture will be unprofitable. Therefore, the zip-strip – true a sign of quality goods.
However, careful examination requires packaging of any product. Labels must be clear and logos and brand colors manufacturer – match those found in advertising, Internet sites, etc. Should be checked and the availability of such details as the information about the manufacturer (including contact information), bar code, manufacturing date and shelf life. In addition, the packaging of most really high-quality goods sold in Russia, usually a so-called conformity mark – a logo Rostest located underneath an alphanumeric code of the certification body. Exactly the same code should be on certificate which the seller must present upon request. Large manufacturers applied conformity mark directly on the package, without using any additional labels. If you are told that certification of many types of goods today is not necessary, remember – reputable companies tend to voluntarily certify their products, even if it can not do.
Modern Power Cable
One of the important challenges facing the country's power is the solution to the problem of power supply reliability. Power cables that were previously used for laying nets designed to medium, low and high stress, in many cases obsolete. Today, the domestic industry unable to meet the growing demand for power cables of the new generation – an opportunity to buy a cable with improved features directly from the manufacturers. The modern cable production offers consumers the power cables of three types: paper-insulated lead-in shell, with xlpe insulation (Polyolefin) and conventional, insulated by a thermoplastic polyethylene. If we evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each type of power cables, it turns out next. An important advantage of cable with paper impregnated insulation designed for low and medium voltage (this brand of asb, sb, sg, tsasb, cbs and others) – stable electrical characteristics.
However, the disadvantages are the laborious process of manufacture, expensive and, besides, the heavy metallic shell of this type of power cable. Sales of cable insulated with a thermoplastic polyethylene is becoming larger scale, however, and this kind of power cable (it's brand vvg, avvg, VBbSh, AVBbSh, kvvg and others) can not be called universal, although the cost of such cables are more than acceptable. Power cable with plastic insulation has very low resistance to high temperatures, comparable to the melting point of polyethylene. The most up to date power cable suitable for use in both low and high voltage, as well as withstand severe thermal stress, is a cable with xlpe insulation. High mechanical strength, power cable (it's brand ABvBbSh, AnBn, PVBbSh, PvVG and others) due to "cross-linking" of polyethylene. "Matching" means processing of isolation at the molecular level – resulting in a three-dimensional structure of the insulation material with exceptional properties.
Power cables with xlpe insulation have a working temperature range when operating in emergency mode, more than similar options paper insulated cables with an average of 30%, and the cable from an ordinary polyethylene – by 60%. In addition, "stitched" negigrosokopichny cables and have high strength characteristics. These properties are given to these power cables by using a process of "matching" silanes – grafted organo-functional groups. For power cables, designed for medium voltage is applied another way of stitching – peroxide, in a dry environment. This is necessary in order to ensure the immutable physical and mechanical properties of the cable in the transverse direction and to achieve stable electrical characteristics.
Among other organizations related to housing and public utilities, major urban water utilities stand out. And, unlike other "brothers" on housing and utilities, where the depreciation of fixed assets reaches sometimes exorbitant 90% position of these companies have fairly stable. This is understandable – being the one hand, strategic objects, they are even in turbulent times felt the support of the state. On the other hand – that utilities are suppliers of essential and the public, and business services – water supply and sanitation. But on its own stability – not a panacea for all ills.
Today, as in the famous children's tale, "to simply remain in place, you need to run for dear life, continuous growth of energy tariffs simply does not have a choice. To keep up forever, even just to stay within the cost-effectiveness, any enterprise must be constantly and quite rapidly – to reduce costs, improve production efficiency. All this is impossible without the use of latest technological developments. And, as the experience of leading Russian utilities, even very large investments pay off handsomely. Water several years ago in Bashkortostan was successfully reconstructed water three industrial cities of the country – Salavat, Sterlitamak and Ishimbay. Their Group abstraction serves sue Salavatvodokanal. Like almost everywhere in such structures, the lion's share of expenditure devoted to electricity. And pumping equipment consumes up to 70% of the total energy consumption enterprise. Most of them (80%) are in the station of the second and subsequent climbs. About 6 years ago, when the modernization of the water utility, the company has installed pumps grundfos type sp.
In addition, Today serious developers interested in the revival of licensing for construction works – this will cut off smaller competitors and really put things in order in certain types of construction work. Today already a considerable number of organizations have realized that it's easier and cheaper to invest in its own system of quality control activities, than to pay later for the errors. "We have a contractual relationship with one of the leading institutes in the construction industry of the city – sri Mosstroy. At all our facilities it provides of operational quality control – with a weekly report, – said Andrei Sharov, Director General construction company's strategy. " – In addition, we have a certified laboratory, concluded several contracts with the organizations involved, such as monitoring of surrounding buildings, control behavior of soils under the base of constructed buildings. Not only are customers, but manufacturers are interested in quality work. Some companies advocate the implementation of programs for the certification of its partners.
Availability this document, in particular, from the producers of translucent structures, according to experts propleks, will serve as end-user quality assurance of finished window, its installation and service service. Building – just a class along with the issue of compliance technology and the quality of the material itself more acutely raises the problem of low skills of many builders. To solve this problem requires the combined efforts of business and power. For example, in the Sverdlovsk region Ministry of Construction and Architecture in conjunction with the Ministry of General and Vocational Education created its system of partnership. Was organized by the Council to prepare training, which consisted of directors of colleges and professional schools, as well as leaders of industrial unions. The Ministry of Construction and Architecture established information base, which reflects the needs of construction companies in the frames.
Based on these data, and prepared training programs. Feature of the construction industry is the fact that professionals need to periodically upgrade their skills, ideally – job work. In this sense, may be useful experience Institute of Scientific and Technical Society of Builders. Now professionals can take courses remotely, getting educational materials for home or office. Prevent marriage – a very simple, but the fight with him – very difficult. Change must not only technology but also the psychology of builders. Notably, in some European countries to construct a building, the organization sufficient Architects seek confirmation that the project does not harm the city appearance. The technical documentation and the process of building officials practically do not interfere. They know that marriage and failures of interested in less than anyone else. And the faster in Russia cares about the image will become an indispensable attribute of each organization, the more likely the marriage will disappear completely. Press Service of the Group PROPLEKS