Tag: construction and repair
Just these primers swells upon freezing, may erode and subjected to other environmental influences. And there are a lot of ground. If everything had to build the foundation for the clay, it should deepen correspond to the entire depth of the possible . Thus, the soil sample – a mandatory process before construction of the foundation and building. And now is a detailed focus on the entire process of swelling, freezing and the influence of groundwater.
The depth of soil freezing is determined by the geographical location of future buildings. In this connection it may be different. For example, Volgograd, Kursk, Smolensk, Pskov characterized freezing to a depth of 1.2 meters. And Moscow, Novgorod, , St. Petersburg have freezing depth 1.4 meters.
Deeper soil freezing is observed in Penza, Vologda, Saratov, Kostroma – 1.5 meters. A very important factor is the groundwater level, and to neglect this information can not be. Ground water must be below the level of the depth of freezing. The reason is that during the freezing cold, exposed all the deeper soil layers. If this process reaches the groundwater, then turn them into ice, which guarantees the swelling of the soil and, consequently, the deformation of the building. But it's not so scary. The fact that the process of freezing never took place, and will not take place evenly, as, indeed, and thawing. Because of this, and there is a displacement of the foundation, the redistribution of the total load and as a consequence, cracks in various places.
Among other organizations related to housing and public utilities, major urban water utilities stand out. And, unlike other "brothers" on housing and utilities, where the depreciation of fixed assets reaches sometimes exorbitant 90% position of these companies have fairly stable. This is understandable – being the one hand, strategic objects, they are even in turbulent times felt the support of the state. On the other hand – that utilities are suppliers of essential and the public, and business services – water supply and sanitation. But on its own stability – not a panacea for all ills.
Today, as in the famous children's tale, "to simply remain in place, you need to run for dear life, continuous growth of energy tariffs simply does not have a choice. To keep up forever, even just to stay within the cost-effectiveness, any enterprise must be constantly and quite rapidly – to reduce costs, improve production efficiency. All this is impossible without the use of latest technological developments. And, as the experience of leading Russian utilities, even very large investments pay off handsomely. Water several years ago in Bashkortostan was successfully reconstructed water three industrial cities of the country – Salavat, Sterlitamak and Ishimbay. Their Group abstraction serves sue Salavatvodokanal. Like almost everywhere in such structures, the lion's share of expenditure devoted to electricity. And pumping equipment consumes up to 70% of the total energy consumption enterprise. Most of them (80%) are in the station of the second and subsequent climbs. About 6 years ago, when the modernization of the water utility, the company has installed pumps grundfos type sp.