Robust, tenacious, "fast" brakes, shorter stopping distances – an important element of active safety. However, if during emergency braking force developed by the brake mechanism will exceed the force of traction, the wheel lock, car will skid and turn into uncontrollable projectile – the kinetic energy can be deployed with the removal of the car to the opposite side, or even take a roll and flip. For prevent similar situations in modern cars use Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) – Anti-lock brake system (ABS) that provides a metered braking force. Sensors on all four wheels continuously measure angular velocity of rotation of the wheels. If the individual wheel speed suddenly drops, the control electronics sends a signal about the danger of blocking.
The pressure in the corresponding line of hydraulic brake system immediately drops and then rises again, a little before reaching the border, beyond which begins locking the wheels. As a result, even when emergency braking is stored stability and control car. The operating principle of the ABS was patented by the specialists of "Bosch" still in? 1936, however, the first ABS appeared only in 1978, first at the "Mercedes S-Class, and then on "BMW" 7-series. Boshevskoe innovation eventually caught on so that today the security standards of many countries provide for mandatory availability of in-vehicle ABS. However, the ABS should not be seen as a panacea, many forgiving driver error.
Its use has a number of nuances. First, we must learn not impulsively a few times, push the brake pedal. Secondly, on a slippery road, pressing with a force on the pedal, you should not just let it go up. Third, in non-road conditions (Powdery snow, gravel, sand, etc.) the stopping distance may even increase in comparison with conventional braking systems. In addition to the ABS there are a number of similar or complementary systems to ensure effective inhibition in different situations. Among the most notable should be noted:? – A system of emergency braking – Brake Assist (BA, BAS, PA, PABS, EBA – different manufacturers have different acronym). If necessary, emergency brake on their own increases the pressure in the brake line, making it many times faster than a man can do. Significantly reduces the time for braking action of the machine settings. A very good thing, considering that in an emergency situation, about 90 percent of all drivers are not able to perform emergency braking. – A system of dynamic control over braking – Dynamic Brake Control (DBC), EBD, etc. Accelerates and enhances the process of growing pressure in the brake actuator in the event of Brake and provides insufficient force at the pedal – the minimum stopping distance. The highlight is that the electronics actually increases the impact of man on the brake pedal – that failure efforts pedal adds extra meters of braking distance, which often has tragic consequences .- Electronic braking system – Electronic Braking System (EBS) and analogues: ECB, Brake by Wire, etc. In fact, an electronic pedal. None mechanical connection with the brakes. All the processes managed by electronics on the basis of performance of many sensors. In Europe, the presence of anti-lock system is a prerequisite for selling new vehicles. In Russia, unfortunately, we just go for it.